Earthquake Research in China  2019, Vol. 33 Issue (3): 514-524     DOI: 10.19743/j.cnki.0891-4176.201903012
Shaking Table Tests on Bridge Foundation Reinforced by Anti-slide Piles on Slope
ZHOU Heng1,2, SU Qian1,2, LIU Jie1, YUE Fei1
1. School of Civil Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, China;
2. Key Laboratory of High-Speed Railway Engineering, Ministry of Education, Chengdu 610031, China
Abstract: Based on the requirement of seismic reinforcement of bridge foundation on slope in the Chengdu-Lanzhou railway project, a shaking table model test of anti-slide pile protecting bridge foundation in landslide section is designed and completed. By applying Wenchuan seismic waves with different acceleration peaks, the stress and deformation characteristics of bridge pile foundation and anti-slide pile are analyzed, and the failure mode is discussed. Results show that the dynamic response of bridge pile and anti-slide pile are affected by the peak value of seismic acceleration of earthquake, with which the stress and deformation of the structure increase. The maximum dynamic earth pressure and the moment of anti-slide piles are located near the sliding surface, while that of bridge piles are located at the top of the pile. Based on the dynamic response of structure, local reinforcement needs to be carried out to meet the requirement of the seismic design. The PGA amplification factor of the surface is greater than the inside, and it decreases with the increase of the input seismic acceleration peak. When the slope failure occurs, the tension cracks are mainly produced in the shallow sliding zone and the coarse particles at the foot of the slope are accumulated.
Key words: Shaking table test     Anti-slide pile     Bridge pile foundation     Dynamic response     Damage mode

INTRODUCTION

With the construction of high-speed railway in China, a large number of bridge foundations are inevitably built on steep slopes, especially in high-intensity seismic areas. Therefore, how to carry out reasonable seismic study on slope for such projects is particularly important.

Beena K. S. et al. conducted a series of model tests to study the problem of laterally loaded pile on sloping ground (Beena K. S. et al., 2018). Based on the results, the bending moment variation along the embedment depth of pile, obtained from strain, using strain gauges pasted along the depth of the pile were quantitatively studied. Kobayashi H. et al. conducted the hybrid vibration experiment on seismic behavior of bridge-soil system, and examined the applicability of hybrid vibration experiment to study seismic response of bridge-soil system (Kobayashi H. et al., 2002). Based on shaking table model experimental studies, Lei Da et al. revealed that the filtering effect existed in soil and was affected by the dynamic constraint conditions. The amplitude is strengthened around natural frequency and weakened on other frequency band in Fourier spectrum (Lei Da et al., 2017). The recorded data and observations of the centrifuge models showed that the PGA amplification coefficient, the acceleration response spectra and the settlements at slope crest were decreased to some extent when the lower bedrock deposit slope was reinforced with the stabilizing piles (Sun Zhiliang et al., 2017).

Because of the accidental factors of earthquake, the shaking table model test is an effective method to study the failure characteristics of the slope and the dynamic response of structure (Lai Jie et al., 2015; Ye Hailin et al., 2012; Wu Dong et al., 2014). Based on the research project of Chengdu-Lanzhou railway project, a shaking table model test of anti-slide pile protecting bridge foundation on slope was designed. Under the effect of Wenchuan earthquake wave, the dynamic response of anti-slide pile and bridge foundation structure and the failure mode of landslide were studied.

1 DESIGN OF SHAKING TABLE MODEL TEST

The model test was carried out on a unidirectional electro-hydraulic shaking table in the road and railway engineering laboratory of Southwest Jiaotong University, which has a carrying capacity of 25 tons. A rigid steel box with inner space of 3.7m×1.5m×2.1m was adopted in the test. In order to reduce the boundary effects (Goodings D. J. et al., 1996; Zhou Zhong et al., 2010), the inner surface of the test box was covered with a 5-cm-thick layer of polyethylene foam board.

1.1 Design of Similarity Relations

According to the dimensional analysis theory (Yang Junjie, 2005), geometric dimension l, cohesion c, internal friction angle φ, severe γ, Poisson ratio ν, gravity acceleration g, time t, frequency ω, displacement s, strain ε, stress σ, and seismic acceleration a are taken as the main similarity indexes. The similarity criterions are listed as follow:

 $\begin{array}{l} \frac{{{C_c}}}{{{C_l}{C_\gamma }}} = 1\;\;\;\;{C_\varphi } = 1\;\;\;\;\frac{{{C_E}}}{{{C_l}{C_\gamma }}} = 1\;\;\;{C_\mu } = 1\;\;\;\;\frac{{{C_{vs}}}}{{{C_l}{C_\omega }}} = 1\;\;\;\;\frac{{{C_g}}}{{{C_l}C_\omega ^2}} = 1\;\;\;\;\frac{{{C_a}}}{{{C_l}C_\omega ^2}} = 1\\ {C_\omega }{C_{td}} = 1\;\;\;\;{C_s} = {C_l}\;\;\;{C_\theta } = 1\;\;\;\;{C_\varepsilon } = 1\;\;\;\;\;\frac{{{C_\sigma }}}{{{C_l}{C_\omega }}} = 1\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\frac{{{C_v}}}{{{C_l}{C_\omega }}} = 1\;\;\;\;\frac{{{C_\alpha }}}{{{C_l}C_\omega ^2}} = 1 \end{array}$

Since the dimension, weight and acceleration are the main controlling factors in similarity relations, the similar constants of physical quantities can be derived based on the Buckingham π theorem and are tabulated in Table 1.

Table 1 Similar constants of physical quantities
1.2 Model Setup and Sensors Arrangement

The model test was based on the slop of Zhengjiangguan bridge in the Chengdu-Lanzhou railway. As depicted in Fig. 1, the bedrock is carbonic slate and the landslide is gravel soil. The bridge foundation is located at the foot of the slope and is reinforced by the rear anti-slide pile. According to the similarity theory, a simplified reduced-scale model of 1:40 was made in Fig. 2. The size of anti-slide pile is 10cm×8cm×100cm. The piles of bridge foundation with dimensions of 100-cm-high and 3-cm-in-diameter were arranged in three rows. Both the anti-slide pile and the bridge foundation were made of micro concrete precast and maintained the same reinforcement ratio as the original model.

 Fig. 1 Longitudinal section of the prototype

 Fig. 2 Reduced-scale model

The landslide was simulated by coarse sand and gravel with a density of 2100kg/m3, friction angle of 35° and moisture content of 8.7%. The bedrock was composed of silty clay, cement, coarse sand and gypsum, which were filled in layers (Liu Jingwen et al., 2014; Zheng Tong et al., 2016). In order to test the dynamic characteristics of the slope and structure, the horizontal acceleration sensors, earth pressure cells, strain gauges were placed in the central area of the slope, as shown in Figs. 3 and 4.

 Fig. 3 Layout of earth pressure cell

 Fig. 4 Layout of strain gauge

The effect of the peak acceleration on the seismic response of slope was studied by applying Wenchuan seismic wave, whose peak value was gradually increased to 0.1g (Fig. 5). With the aim of detecting the natural frequency of the model, the white Gaussian noise was loaded before formal test. The particular loading scheme is shown in Table 2.

 Fig. 5 Seismic waveforms

2 DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS ANALYSIS 2.1 Peak Earth Pressure Analysis

The side facing the top of the slope is regarded as the backside while the side facing the foot is defined as the frontside. As is shown in Fig. 6, the peak value of the dynamic earth pressure from the backside of the anti-slide pile is distributed in a triangular shape, which increases constantly with the peak acceleration. The result can be observed that the maximum value appeares near the sliding surface, indicating that the progressive failure of the slope develops continually along the potential sliding surface.

 Fig. 6 Backside dynamic soil pressure of anti-slide pile

The peak value of the dynamic earth pressure from the backside of the bridge pile is presented as a parabolic-shaped distribution, as shown in Fig. 7. It can be seen that the dynamic earth pressure changes slightly above the sliding surface. When the acceleration reached 0.4g, the peak value of the soil pressure at the pile top increases rapidly, which demonstrates that the landslide thrust on anti-slide piles is simultaneously increased.

 Fig. 7 Backside dynamic soil pressure of bridge pile

As shown in Fig. 8, the dynamic earth pressure above the sliding surface is distributed in an inverted triangular shape, while below that is in a triangular shape. Under the action of seismic waves, the dynamic response of the soil is enhanced and the surface amplification effect is thus generated on the front slope of the bridge. With the increase of vibration acceleration, this effect becomes increasingly acute.

 Fig. 8 Frontside dynamic soil pressure of bridge pile
2.2 Strain Analysis of Pile Structure

The earthquake may trigger landslides and deformation of anti-slide piles. Fig. 9 shows the peak value of dynamic strain varying with vibration acceleration. It can be seen that the peak value of the dynamic strain of the load-bearing section is in a parabolic shape, and the maximum value is mainly distributed near the slip surface.Such observing data is consistent with the experimental results of the earth pressure distribution.

 Fig. 9 Dynamic strain analysis of anti-slide pile

Fig. 10 illustrates the peak value of dynamic strain of bridge pile varying with the seismic wave. As can be observed, the maximum strain occurs at the top of the pile, among which the strain at the top of the rear pile is larger than that of the front pile. This is because with the increase of seismic acceleration, the residual sliding force transmitted by the anti-slide pile increases continuously, and the earth pressure acting on the bridge foundation increases, resulting in a significant increase in the dynamic strain at the top of the pile.

 Fig. 10 Dynamic strain analysis of bridge pile (a)Front row pile. (b)Back row pile
2.3 PGA Amplification Factor Analysis

Based on the same seismic waves input, acceleration of slope has been monitored, and the acceleration amplification coefficient variation rules with height are summarized. By analyzing the horizontal acceleration of the surface(A0-A3-A4-A5-A9-A12) and the inside(A0-A6-A7-A8-A9) of slope, it is found that the PGA amplification factor of the surface is greater than the inside, as shown in Fig. 11. A complex seismic wave field is formed due to the reflection of seismic waves on the empty face, the PGA amplification factor increases nearby in empty face, and the landslide of the slope is characterized by shallow sliding.

 Fig. 11 PGA amplification factor (a)Surface. (b)Inside

As shown in Fig. 12, the PGA amplification factor decreases with the increases of the input seismic acceleration peak. Due to the obvious nonlinear characteristics of deposit slope, the natural frequency of interaction system decreases and the damping ratio of soil increases with the increase of the shaking.

 Fig. 12 The relationship between the PGA and the peak seismic acceleration
2.4 Analysis of Slope Failure Characteristics

Under the action of Wenchuan earthquake wave, the soil is disturbed by repeated shear. When the peak acceleration of seismic wave ranges from 0.1g to 0.3g, the slope deformation is not obvious. As the 0.4g seismic wave is applied, a few tensile cracks begin to appear on the side slope (Fig. 13). When the peak value reaches 0.5g, the slope crack develops rapidly. Due to the reinforcement effect of the anti-slide piles, the sliding leads to excessive uplift deformation of the slope surface. At the same time, obvious tension cracks are produced near the bridge foundation, and a large amount of gravel accumulation appeared at the foot of the slope.

 Fig. 13 Landslide failure
3 CONCLUSIONS

(1) Under the action of seismic load, the landslide deforms along the sliding surface, and the earth pressure of anti-slide pile and bridge pile increase with the seismic acceleration. The increase and amplitude of soil pressure of bridge piles are less than that of anti-slide piles.The result shows that anti-slide piles play an effective role in slope reinforcement.

(2) The peak value of dynamic strain of anti-slide pile is near the anchorage point, while that of bridge pile is at the top of the pile. To meet the requirement of the seismic design of structure, local reinforcement should be carried out according to the characteristics of dynamic response of structure to ensure safety.

(3) The PGA amplification factor of the surface is greater than the inside. And the natural frequency of interaction system decreases and the damping ratio of soil increases with the increase of the shaking, the PGA amplification factor decreases with the increases of the input seismic acceleration peak.

(4) The failure process shows that the deformations of upper and lower parts of landslide are different. The sliding mass which mainly exhibits shallow slide develops along the sliding surface under the earthquake action, resulting in a large number of tension cracks and excessive slope uplift. At the foot of the slope, a large amount of gravel soil is accumulated.

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