Earthquake Reaearch in China  2019, Vol. 33 Issue (1): 164-170     DOI: 10.19743/j.cnki.0891-4176.201901006
Highlights of Recent Scientific Earthquake Hazard Mitigation
PENG Fei     
Institute of Earthquake Forecasting, China Earthquake Administration, Beijing 100036, China
Abstract: Earthquakes are a serious natural disaster faced by countries all over the world. Research on earthquake hazard mitigation are important parts of earthquake science and is a feature of China's development of earthquake science. In recent years, the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of the People's Republic of China, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) and the China Earthquake Administration (CEA) have attached great importance to basic research on earthquake hazard mitigation, and new opportunities and challenges have emerged. This paper collects the applications and approvals of the National Key R&D Program and the NSFC projects undertaken by the research institutes of the CEA system in recent years. The CEA system has received funding in the 13th "Five-year Plan" for "Monitoring, Early Warning and Prevention of Major Natural Disaster". The implementation of these projects is expected to provide support for the basic science and applied research of the CEA system. In the NSFC, the number of applications from the CEA system is relatively stable, and the funding rate is slightly higher than the average for the department of earth science. Although no detailed statistical analysis has been performed, the CEA system still has room for improvement in the application of talent and major programs. I hope that the brief review of new opportunities that have arose in recent years described in this article can provide some background and new thinking for future challenges.
Key words: Earthquake Hazard Mitigation     Basic research     Science and technology    

INTRODUCTION

In 2017, the China Earthquake Administration (CEA) convened the National Earthquake Science and Technology Innovation Conference and proposed the goal of China's earthquake science and technology development: by 2030, China will promote earthquake science and technology, making it among the best in the world. Under the guidance of this goal, the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of the People's Republic of China and other units have cooperated closely with the CEA to set up a National Key R&D Program of China "Monitoring, Early Warning and Prevention of Major Natural Disasters". The National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) and the CEA have jointly established the " Joint Earthquake Science Foundation". Under the impetus of these projects, a number of seismological advantages with China's regional characteristics will initially form, and a number of breakthrough results will be obtained. This paper focuses on the field of earthquake hazard mitigation in seismology and introduces some related scientific and technological developments.

1 IMPORTANT SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES IN CHINA'S EARTHQUAKE HAZARD MITIGATION SINCE 2017

On June 7, 2017, the National Earthquake Science and Technology Innovation Conference was hosted by the CEA. It proposed the strengthening of seismological innovations, vigorous implementation of the National Earthquake Science and Technology Innovation Plan (NESTIP), and acknowledged innovation programs as the national seismological key action plan for the next decade. On July 28, 2017, President Xi Jinping visited Tangshan City, Hebei Province on the 40th anniversary of Earthquake Relief and Construction of Tangshan. President Xi proposed a new concept of disaster prevention, mitigation, and relief of "Two Adherences" and "Three Transforms." On September 4, 2017, the CEA and the NSFC signed an agreement on the joint fund for earthquake science and each department invested 15 million yuan (RMB) each year in the fund to support basic research in seismology. In the same year, the MOST of China, together with relevant departments and localities, completed the implementation plan of the National Key R&D Program of China "Monitoring, Early Warning and Prevention of Major Natural Disaster". The first part of the project was officially launched at the end of December, 2017. The International Conference for the Decade Memory of the Wenchuan earthquake with the 4th International Conference on Continental Earthquakes opened in Chengdu, Sichuan Province. The theme of this seminar is "Living with Seismic Risk". President Xi sent a letter to the conference. After the meeting, the construction of the "China Seismic Experiment Site" was started.

2 STATISTICS ON THE NATIONAL KEY R&D PROGRAM OF CHINA: "MONITORING, EARLY WARNING AND PREVENTION OF MAJOR NATURAL DISASTERS"

In 2017, the MOST of China formulated an implementation plan for the National Key R&D Program of China "Monitoring, Early Warning and Prevention of Major Natural Disasters" which includes scientific research and application of five key tasks: ① monitoring, early warning and risk prevention of major earthquakes, ② rapid identification of major geological hazards, risk prevention and control, ③ monitoring, early warning of extreme meteorological disasters and risk prevention, ④ monitoring, early warning and prevention of major floods and droughts, ⑤ major natural disaster assessment and comprehensive prevention of multi-hazards. The program aims to provide scientific and technological support to improve national disaster prevention and mitigation capabilities, ensuring the safety of people's lives and properties, and the sustainable development of the country's society, economy, and security.

In 2017, the program finally established 30 projects undertaken by 20 organizations, with total funding of 544.04 million yuan (RMB). Among them, 5 projects were granted to 3 directly affiliated to the CEA. The total funding amount was 88.42 million yuan (RMB), accounting for 16% of the total special subsidy for the "Monitoring, Early Warning and Prevention of Major Natural Disaster". In 2018, the program finally established 59 projects undertaken by 31 organizations, with total funding of 1, 102.53 million yuan (RMB). Among them, 10 projects were granted to 5 organisations directly affiliated with the CEA. The total funding amount was 203.44 million yuan (RMB), accounting for 19% of the total special subsidy for the "Monitoring, Early Warning and Prevention of Major Natural Disasters".

Fig. 1 Time chart of important activities of national earthquake mitigation and disaster reduction since 2017
3 STATISTICS ON BASIC RESEARCH GRANTS FOR EARTHQUAKE HAZARD MITIGATION BY THE NSFC

The NSFC is a relatively fair competition platform, an indispensable part of China's basic research, and the cornerstone for growth of young researchers. The number of NSFC projects obtained by a research institute is to some extent an important indicator for evaluating research strength and technological innovation capability. The leaders of the CEA have attached great importance to the NSFC and actively encouraged, guided and assisted subordinate research institutions for the application for the projects. In particular, in 2017, the "Joint Earthquake Science Foundation" was established by the NSFC and the CEA. The guiding role of the Joint Fund attracts and brings together outstanding talents in relevant research fields across the country, strengthens basic frontier technology research for the major needs of national earthquake safety, and promotes the sustainable development of Chinese earthquake science and the continuous improvement of independent innovation capabilities.

Fig. 2 Project proportion undertaken by directly affiliated to the CEA in the National Key R&D Program of China "Monitoring, Early Warning and Prevention of Major Natural Disaster" (a) 2017, (b) 2018

For a long time, the NSFC has attached great importance to and supported basic research on earthquake disaster mitigation in four specific programs, i.e., "Crust Imaging, Earthquake Anatomy, Resilient Communities, and Smart Service". Just using the 5 research institutes of the CEA (the Institute of Geophysics, the Institute of Geology, the Institute of Crustal Dynamics, the Institute of Earthquake Forecasting, and the Institute of Engineering Mechanics) as examples, from 2008 to 2018, a total of 887 projects have been applied for the general program of NSFC, and 279 projects have been funded. It is with the continuous support of the NSFC that China has made steady progress in earthquake disaster mitigation in recent years.

4 CONCLUSION

With the opportunity to deepen the reform of the science and technology system and accelerate the construction of the national innovation system, the National Key R&D Program of China "Monitoring, Early Warning and Prevention of Major Natural Disasters", the NSFC, and other scientific and technological projects vigorously promote national earthquake science and technology innovation, cultivate and form a number of advanced areas of earthquake science and technology, and strive to comprehensively enhance the country's ability to withstand earthquake risks.

Table 1 The statistics on the National Key R&D Program of China "Monitoring, Early Warning and Prevention of Major Natural Disaster" undertaken by directly affiliated to the CEA

Fig. 3 Analysis charts of the application status of 5 research institutes of the CEA for the general program of the NSFC from 2008 to 2018 (a) Institute of Geophysics, CEA. (b) Institute of Geology, CEA. (c) Institute of Crustal Dynamics, CEA. (d) Institute of Earthquake Forecasting, CEA. (e) Institute of Engineering Mechanics, CEA

Table 2 Statistical table of the application status of 5 research institutes of the CEA for the general program of the NSFC from 2008 to 2018 (marked in red: the funding rate is higher than that in the Department of Earth Sciences, NSFC)
REFERENCES
Ministry of Science and Technology of the People's Republic of China: http://www.most.gov.cn/
National Science and Technology Information System, Public Service Platform: http://service.most.gov.cn/
National Natural Science Foundation of China: http://www.nsfc.gov.cn/
China Earthquake Administration: http://www.cea.gov.cn/