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矿物成分和正压力对页岩摩擦滑动的影响规律实验研究
李小迪1, 王剑波1, 周伟2, 刘见通3, 曲力4
1.中国石油大学(北京)克拉玛依校区石油学院;2.中国石油新疆油田分公司实验检测研究院;3.中国石油大学(北京)非常规油气科学技术研究院;4.中国石油塔里木油田公司克拉油气开发部
摘要:
页岩储层发育有大量的天然裂隙,在水力压裂过程中发生摩擦滑动,提高了储层渗透性,对提高储层改造效果具有重要意义。页岩含有大量的粘土和有机质,其摩擦行为不同于以前研究中的其它岩性。本文中通过研究页岩摩擦发现,粘土和有机质含量控制了摩擦行为。随粘土和有机质含量增加,微观上以硬质石英矿物等颗粒支撑转变为以塑性的粘土和有机质控制的基质支撑。相应的,剪切强度、摩擦系数均减小,剪切类型由脆性转变为塑性。在粘土和有机质含量较低时,摩擦面微凸体脆性破碎,磨损程度较小,裂缝在摩擦后依然保有一定开度;粘土和有机质含量越低,缝面微凸体易于自支撑增渗,因此促进剪切滑移是储层改造的主要措施。而当粘土和有机质含量较高时,摩擦后的裂缝开度小,通过天然裂缝摩擦滑动来实现储层渗透性提高较为困难,需要提高支撑剂的支撑效率。
关键词:  页岩,矿物成分,摩擦滑动,摩擦系数,粗糙度
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Experimental Study on the Influence of Mineral Composition and Normal Stress on Shale Frictional Slip
Li Xiaodi1, Wang Jianbo1, Zhou Wei2, Liu Jiantong3, Qu Li4
1.Faculty of Petroleum,China University of Petroleum-Beijing at Karamay;2.Research Institute of Experiment and Detection of Xinjiang Oilfield Company;3.Unconventional Natural Gas Research Institute,China University of Petroleum;4.Kela oil and Gas Development Department of PetroChina Tarim Oilfield Company
Abstract:
Natural fractures are widely distributed in shale reservoirs. During the hydraulic fracturing process, frictional slip occurring on natural fractures can increase the reservoir permeability and is of great significance to improve the efficiency of reservoir stimulation. Shale contains a large amount of clay and organic matter, and its frictional behavior is different from that of other previously studied lithologies. In this work, the frictional behavior of shale is studied, and the results show that the behavior is controlled by the content of clay and organic matter. As the content of clay and organic matter increases, the micro support type transforms from the particle support by hard quartz mineral to matrix support by plastic clay and organic matter. Accordingly, the shear strength and friction coefficient of shale both decrease, and the shear type transforms from being brittle to being plastic. When the content of clay and organic matter is low, the asperities on friction surfaces break in a brittle manner and the wear degree of surfaces is low. Therefore, fractures still have moderate apertures after friction. The lower the content of clay and organic matter, the easier the asperities on crack surfaces support themselves, the higher the fracture residual permeability. Therefore, promoting shear slip is the main measure of reservoir stimulation. However, when the content of clay and organic matter is high, the remaining fracture aperture after slip is small. Under this circumstance, it is difficult to increase reservoir permeability through the frictional slip of natural fractures, so the proppant support efficiency needs to be improved in this situation.
Key words:  shale, mineral composition, frictional slip, friction coefficient, roughness