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层理和矿物组分对页岩油储层力学性质及水力压裂的影响
1, 许建国2, 赵晨旭2, 刘桐源1, 葛洪魁1, 申颍浩1, 吴珊1, 于佳尧1, 黄荣燕1
1.中国石油大学(北京);2.中国石油吉林油气田分公司油气工程研究院
摘要:
水力压裂是页岩油气开发的核心技术,通过对页岩油气储层的大规模体积压裂,使页岩储层形成复杂裂缝网络,从而使存储于超低渗透页岩储层中的页岩油气得以工业开发。而开展水力压裂的前提是对页岩油气储层的岩石力学特性及裂缝扩展规律有准确而细致的认识。本文以吉林松辽盆地南部的页岩油储层开展了页岩岩石力学特性的系统综合性评价。通过在实验室中对含砂页岩、纯页岩、低熟页岩三类页岩储层的微观孔渗结构、岩石力学特征、声发射破裂特征,脆性特征进行分析,并结合现场压裂和测井数据,分析其地应力,获得了三类储层的裂缝扩展规律,并提出了改造对策建议。结果表明,总研究区块页岩整体上资源禀赋一般,开采性差,压裂改造潜力受储层性质控制且差异大。研究区有两个显著特征,一是层理发育,易形成水平缝,受层理和地应力影响,不适合水平井压裂,二是粘土矿物含量较高,常规滑溜水压裂液适应用性差,建议采用直井或者定向井开展直井体积改造,有效利用层理缝的作用,以开启并沟通层理,形成更大的改造体积。
关键词:  页岩储层 力学性质 裂缝 水力压裂 水平井 层理
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Influence of bedding and mineral composition on mechanical properties and hydraulic fracturing of shale oil reservoir
Wang1, Jianguo Xu2, Chenxu Zhao2, Tongyuan Liu1, Hongkui Ge1, Yinghao Shen1, Shan Wu1, Jiayao Yu1, Rongyan Huang1
1.China University of Petroleum, Beijing;2.Research Institute of Oil and Gas Engineering, PetroChina Jilin Oil and Gas Field Company, Songyuan, Jilin, 138001
Abstract:
Hydraulic fracturing is the key technology of shale oil and gas development. Through large-scale volume fracturing of shale reservoir, complex fracture network is formed, so that shale oil and gas stored in ultra-low permeability shale reservoir can be developed industrially. The premise of hydraulic fracturing is to have an accurate and detailed understanding of the rock mechanical properties and fracture propagation law of shale reservoir. In this paper, a systematic and comprehensive evaluation of the mechanical properties of shale rock is carried out based on the shale oil reservoir in the south of Songliao Basin, Jilin Province. Based on the analysis of the microstructure, rock mechanics, acoustic emission fracture and brittleness characteristics of three types of shale reservoirs in the laboratory, combined with the field fracturing, logging data and the in-situ stress, the fracture propagation law of the three types of reservoirs is obtained, and the suggestions for fracturing are put forward. The results show that the fracturing potential is controlled by the reservoir properties. There are two significant characteristics in the study area. One is the development of bedding, which is easy to form horizontal fractures. Influenced by bedding and stress, it is not suitable for horizontal well fracturing. The other is the high content of clay minerals, and the applicability of conventional slick hydraulic fracturing fluid is poor. It is suggested to use vertical well or directional well to carry out volume fracturing. In this way, the effect of bedding can be effectively used to open and communicate the bedding and form a larger fracture network.
Key words:  shale reservoir  mechanical properties  fracture  hydraulic fracturing  horizontal well  bedding