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2008年5月12日汶川Mw7.9地震诱发滑坡的空间分布与属性参数统计分析
杜朋1, 徐岳仁1, 张伟恒2, 田勤俭1, 李文巧1, 郭春杉3, 张彦博1
1.中国地震局地震预测研究所;2.中国地震局地质研究所;3.中国煤炭科工集团西安研究院有限公司
摘要:
完整的滑坡编目和属性数据库是研究地震滑坡的重要基础。2008年5月12日发生的Mw7.9级汶川地震引发了大量山体滑坡。本文基于Google Earth平台地震前后影像,通过人工目视解译,结合野外调查验证,在地震区解译出了52,194处同震滑坡,总滑坡面积为1021km2。在此基础上,我们建立了滑坡的同震数据库,滑坡数据库的内容包括滑坡的面积、长度、宽度、后缘高程、前缘高程、以及滑坡所在坡面的顶底高程。最后,对滑坡的空间分布和上述属性参数进行了统计分析。结果表明,同震滑坡的空间分布极不均匀,同震滑坡主要发生在一个以映秀-北川断层上盘30km为宽、映秀至北川之间120km为长的矩形区域内。地表破裂、地形和地面峰值加速度对同震滑坡的分布有明显的控制作用。数量众多的小滑坡(单体滑坡面积小于10000m2)对总滑坡面积贡献较小。大于10000 m2的滑坡的数量占同震滑坡总数量的38.7%,而面积占同震滑坡总面积的88%。52194处同震滑坡主要为以基岩崩塌,受地形影响,基岩崩塌通常由物源区、流通区和堆积区三部分组成,真正发生滑坡的区域仅有物源区,因此,以滑坡影响面积,基于面积-体积公式计算得到滑坡体积可能远大于滑坡的真实体积。
关键词:  汶川地震、地震滑坡、滑坡参数、滑坡编目数据库、滑坡面积
DOI:
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基金项目:中国地震局地震预测研究所基本科研业务专项(2015IES0101, 2019IEF0201, 2017IES0101);国家自然科学基金项目(41502204);中国地震局地震科技星火计划(XH180801)
The Spatial Distribution and Attribute Parameters Statistics of Landslides Triggered by the May 12, 2008, Mw 7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake
Du Peng)1, Xu Yueren)1, Zhang Weiheng)2, Tian Qinjian)1, Li Wenqiao)1, Guo Chunshan)3, Zhang Yanbo)1
1.Key Laboratory of Earthquake Prediction,Institute of Earthquake Forecasting,China Earthquake Administration;2.Institute of Geology,China Earthquake Administration;3.Xi’an Research Insitiute,China Coal Technology and Engineering Group Crop,Xi’an
Abstract:
A complete landslide inventory and attribute database is an important basis for the study of an earthquake-triggered landslide. A large number of landslides were triggered by the Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake on May 12, 2008. Based on Google Earth images of pre- and post-earthquake, 52,194 co-seismic landslides were recognized and mapped, with a total landslides area of 1,021 km2. Then, we assigned all landslides parameters?and established?the co-seismic landslides?database, which includes area, length, and width of landslides, elevation of the scarp top and foot edge, and the top and bottom elevations of each located slope. Finally, the spatial distribution and the above attribute parameters of landslides were analyzed statistically. The results show that the distribution of the co-seismic landslides is extremely uneven spatially. Those landslides mainly occuring in a rectangular area (a width of 30 km of the hanging wall of the Yingxiu-Beichuan?Fault and a length of 120 km between Yingxiu?and Beichuan) are obviously controlled by the surface rupture, the terrain, and the peak ground acceleration. A large number of small landslides (individual landslide area less than 10,000 m2)contribute less to the total landslides area. The number of landslides larger than 10,000 m2 accounted for 38.7 of the total number of co-seismic landslides, while the area of those landslides accounted for 88% of the total landslides area. The 52,194 co-seismic landslides are composed by bedrock collapse that usually consists of three parts: source area, transport area, and accumulation area. However, if the landslide volume is calculated from the area of influence from each landslide, based on the area-volume power-law relationship, the resulting regional landslide volume may be much larger than the true landslide volume.
Key words:  Wenchuan  earthquake? Earthquake  landslide? Inventories  database? Landslide  parameters? Landslide  area