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张衡地动仪(1):诞生的历史
冯锐
Author NameAffiliation
Feng Rui China Earthquake Networks Center, Beijing 100045, China 
摘要:
地动仪的诞生有着深厚的历史背景,本文探讨张衡科学思想的形成过程和物质基础, “观察异象、辨别凶吉”的朴素愿望是研制地动仪的原始动力。作者追溯了历史背景,指出地动仪的研制起步于公元128年,基于感性认识升华出两个地震概念——地震的位置可按方位判断、地震和地裂必须加以区别。仪器制作上,张衡崇尚“制器尚象”的原则。地动仪的测震原理模仿了悬挂物(即天然验震器)对地震的反应,技术实现上借鉴了门闩类的触发机构,通过龙首吐丸的方式留下了发生地震的物质证据,这三个关键问题的解决成就了132年地动仪的问世和134年的成功验震。地动仪的发明深化了人类对自然规律的认识,促进了当时和后世的科学技术发展。
关键词:  地动仪的发明  张衡  古代地震观念  悬挂物  触发机构
DOI:
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基金项目:
Zhang Heng’s seismoscope (1): Its emergence
Feng Rui
Abstract:
The emergence of Zhang Heng’s seismoscope means the profound historical background. This paper intends to explore formation and material basis of Zhang Heng’s scientific thought. It appears that a simple intention of “observing visions and distinguishing good fortune or misfortune” is the his motive power to develop the seismoscope. Tracing its historical background, the authors proposed in this paper that this seismoscope started to be investigated since 128 AD, and based on perceptual knowledge by then, two ideas about the earthquake came into being, i.e., the earthquake location could be judged according to the instrument shake direction, and the earthquake and land-split were essentially different. In the instrument manufacturing, Zhang Heng advocated a principle of “making utensils to imitate cosmos”. By this principle, the following three problems were readily solved: the seismoscope imitated the response of suspension system to earthquakes (i.e. natural seismoscope), the trigger mechanism of latches technically used, as well as presented the matter proof for earthquake occurrence by a smart way of a ball dropped from a dragon. The solution of these three key problems achieved the emergence of the seismoscope in 132 AD and successful detection of an earthquake in 134 AD. His invention deepened human’s knowledge to natural laws, and promoted the development of science and technology at that time and later ages.
Key words:  Invention of Zhang Heng’s seismoscope  Ancient concept of earthquake  Suspension system  Trigger mechanism