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Deformation Evolution Characteristics Revealed by GPS and Cross-fault Leveling Data before the MS8.0 Wenchuan Earthquake
ZHAO Jing1,2, LIU Jie2, REN Jinwei3, YUE Chong1,2, LI Jiaojiao4
1.State Key Laboratory of Earthquake Dynamics, Institute of Geology, CEA, Beijing 100029, China;2.China Earthquake Networks Center, Beijing 100045, China;3.Institute of Earthquake Forecasting, CEA, Beijing 100036, China;4.China Aero Geophysical Survey and Remote Sensing Center for Natural Resources, Beijing 100083, China
摘要:
Based on GPS velocity during 1999-2007, GPS baseline time series on large scale during 1999-2008 and cross-fault leveling data during 1985-2008, the paper makes some analysis and discussion to study and summarize the movement, tectonic deformation and strain accumulation evolution characteristics of the Longmenshan fault and the surrounding area before the MS8.0 Wenchuan earthquake, as well as the possible physical mechanism late in the seismic cycle of the Wenchuan earthquake. Multiple results indicate that:GPS velocity profiles show that obvious continuous deformation across the eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau before the earthquake was distributed across a zone at least 500km wide, while there was little deformation in Sichuan Basin and Longmenshan fault zone, which means that the eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau provides energy accumulation for locked Longmenshan fault zone continuously. GPS strain rates show that the east-west compression deformation was larger in the northwest of the mid-northern segment of the Longmenshan fault zone, and deformation amplitude decreased gradually from far field to near fault zone, and there was little deformation in fault zone. The east-west compression deformation was significant surrounding the southwestern segment of the Longmenshan fault zone, and strain accumulation rate was larger than that of mid-northern segment. Fault locking indicates nearly whole Longmenshan fault was locked before the earthquake except the source of the earthquake which was weakly locked, and a 20km width patch in southwestern segment between 12km to 22.5km depth was in creeping state. GPS baseline time series in northeast direction on large scale became compressive generally from 2005 in the North-South Seismic Belt, which reflects that relative compression deformation enhances. The cross-fault leveling data show that annual vertical change rate and deformation trend accumulation rate in the Longmenshan fault zone were little, which indicates that vertical activity near the fault was very weak and the fault was tightly locked. According to analyses of GPS and cross-fault leveling data before the Wenchuan earthquake, we consider that the Longmenshan fault is tightly locked from the surface to the deep, and the horizontal and vertical deformation are weak surrounding the fault in relatively small-scale crustal deformation. The process of weak deformation may be slow, and weak deformation area may be larger when large earthquake is coming. Continuous and slow compression deformation across eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau before the earthquake provides dynamic support for strain accumulation in the Longmenshan fault zone in relative large-scale crustal deformation.
关键词:  MS8.0 Wenchuan earthquake  GPS data  Cross-fault leveling data  Fault locking  Block deformation
DOI:10.19743/j.cnki.0891-4176.201903006
分类号:
基金项目:This research was supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (2018YFC1503606; 2017YFC1500502) and Earthquake Tracking Task (2019010215).
Deformation Evolution Characteristics Revealed by GPS and Cross-fault Leveling Data before the MS8.0 Wenchuan Earthquake
ZHAO Jing1,2, LIU Jie2, REN Jinwei3, YUE Chong1,2, LI Jiaojiao4
1.State Key Laboratory of Earthquake Dynamics, Institute of Geology, CEA, Beijing 100029, China;2.China Earthquake Networks Center, Beijing 100045, China;3.Institute of Earthquake Forecasting, CEA, Beijing 100036, China;4.China Aero Geophysical Survey and Remote Sensing Center for Natural Resources, Beijing 100083, China
Abstract:
Based on GPS velocity during 1999-2007, GPS baseline time series on large scale during 1999-2008 and cross-fault leveling data during 1985-2008, the paper makes some analysis and discussion to study and summarize the movement, tectonic deformation and strain accumulation evolution characteristics of the Longmenshan fault and the surrounding area before the MS8.0 Wenchuan earthquake, as well as the possible physical mechanism late in the seismic cycle of the Wenchuan earthquake. Multiple results indicate that:GPS velocity profiles show that obvious continuous deformation across the eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau before the earthquake was distributed across a zone at least 500km wide, while there was little deformation in Sichuan Basin and Longmenshan fault zone, which means that the eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau provides energy accumulation for locked Longmenshan fault zone continuously. GPS strain rates show that the east-west compression deformation was larger in the northwest of the mid-northern segment of the Longmenshan fault zone, and deformation amplitude decreased gradually from far field to near fault zone, and there was little deformation in fault zone. The east-west compression deformation was significant surrounding the southwestern segment of the Longmenshan fault zone, and strain accumulation rate was larger than that of mid-northern segment. Fault locking indicates nearly whole Longmenshan fault was locked before the earthquake except the source of the earthquake which was weakly locked, and a 20km width patch in southwestern segment between 12km to 22.5km depth was in creeping state. GPS baseline time series in northeast direction on large scale became compressive generally from 2005 in the North-South Seismic Belt, which reflects that relative compression deformation enhances. The cross-fault leveling data show that annual vertical change rate and deformation trend accumulation rate in the Longmenshan fault zone were little, which indicates that vertical activity near the fault was very weak and the fault was tightly locked. According to analyses of GPS and cross-fault leveling data before the Wenchuan earthquake, we consider that the Longmenshan fault is tightly locked from the surface to the deep, and the horizontal and vertical deformation are weak surrounding the fault in relatively small-scale crustal deformation. The process of weak deformation may be slow, and weak deformation area may be larger when large earthquake is coming. Continuous and slow compression deformation across eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau before the earthquake provides dynamic support for strain accumulation in the Longmenshan fault zone in relative large-scale crustal deformation.
Key words:  MS8.0 Wenchuan earthquake  GPS data  Cross-fault leveling data  Fault locking  Block deformation